A growing interest in non-pharmacological approaches aimed at cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive enhancement pointed towards the application of new technologies. The complex virtual reality (VR) presented using immersive devices has been considered a promising approach. OBJECTIVE:The article provides a systematic review of studies aimed at the efficacy of VR-based rehabilitation. First, we shortly summarize literature relevant to the role of immersion in memory assessment and rehabilitation. METHODS:We searched Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and PubMed with the search terms “memory rehabilitation”, “virtual reality”, “memory deficit”. Only original studies investigating the efficacy of complex three-dimensional VR in rehabilitation and reporting specific memory output measures were included. RESULTS:We identified 412 citations, of which 21 met our inclusion criteria. We calculated appropriate effect sizes for 10 studies including control groups and providing descriptive data. The effect sizes range from large to small, or no effect of memory rehabilitation was present, depending on the control condition applied. Summarized studies with missing control groups point out to potential positive effects of VR but do not allow any generalization. CONCLUSIONS:Even though there are some theoretical advantages of immersive VE over non-immersive technology, there is not enough evidence yet to draw any conclusions.